Province

Province

Province

Province Province in the Philippines

Provinces of the Philippines

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The - provinces of the Philippines - are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 81 provinces (called lalawigan or probinsiya in the native languages) at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are independent of any provincial government. Each province is governed by an elected legislature called the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and by an elected governor.

The provinces are grouped into 17 regions based on geographical, cultural, and ethnological characteristics. Fourteen of these regions are designated with numbers corresponding to their geographic location in order from north to south. The National Capital Region, Cordillera Administrative Region, and Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao do not have numerical designations.

Each province is a member of the League of Provinces of the Philippines, an organization which aims to address issues affecting provincial and metropolitan government administrations.[1]

Government -

A provincial government is autonomous of other provinces within the Republic. Each province is governed by two main elected branches of the government: executive and legislative. Judicial affairs are separated from provincial governance and are administered by the Supreme Court of the Philippines.

Executive - ]

The provincial governor is chief executive and head of each province. Elected to a term of three years and limited to three consecutive terms, he or she appoints the directors of each provincial department which include the office of administration, engineering office, information office, legal office, and treasury office.

Legislative - ]

Relation to other levels of government -

National government - ]

National intrusion into the affairs of each provincial government is limited by the Philippine Constitution. The President of the Philippines however coordinates with provincial administrators through the Department of the Interior and Local Government. For purposes of national representation, each province is guaranteed its own congressional district. One congressional representative represents each district in the House of Representatives. Senatorial representation is elected at an at-large basis and not apportioned through territory-based districts.

Cities and municipalities - ]

Classification -

Provinces are classified according to average annual income based on the previous 3 calendar years. Effective July 28, 2008, the thresholds for the income classes for cities are:[3]

Class - Average annual income -
First - 450 million or more
Second - ₱360 million or more but less than ₱450 million
Third - ₱270 million or more but less than ₱360 million
Fourth - ₱180 million or more but less than ₱270 million
Fifth - ₱90 million or more but less than ₱180 million
Sixth - below ₱90 million

A province's income class determines the size of the membership of its Sangguniang Panlalawigan, and also how much it can spend on certain items, or procure through certain means.[2]

Map -  - - Pangasinan - La Union -
- Benguet -
- Kalinga -
- Abra -
- Apayao -
- Quirino -
- Isabela -
- Cagayan -
- Batanes -
- Bulacan -
- Bataan -
- Tarlac -
- Aurora -
- Rizal -
- Laguna -
- Cavite -
- Quezon -
- Romblon -
- Palawan -
- Albay -
- Masbate -
- Aklan -
- Capiz -
- Iloilo -
- Antique -
- Cebu -
- Bohol -
- Biliran -
- Leyte -
- Sarangani -
- Basilan -
- Sulu -
- Lanao
Note : The map presents independent cities outside of Metro Manila as part of provinces, despite being self-governing units themselves.
List of provinces -
For a sortable table containing figures for all first-level subdivisions, with independent cities presented separately from their mother provinces, see - List of primary local government units of the Philippines - .
- Metro Manila is included for comparison although it is not a province but an administrative region.
-1 Dates could refer to provincehood as established during Spanish period, American period, or through Republic Acts.
Etymologies -
History


When the United States acquired the Philippines from Spain in 1898, the islands were divided into four gobiernos (governments), which were further subdivided into provinces and districts. The American administration initially inherited the Spanish divisions and placed them under military government. As insurgencies were pacified, civil government was gradually organized.

October 28, 2013: Plebiscite approves the separation of - Davao Occidental - from Davao del Sur by virtue of Republic Act No. 10360 approved on January 21, 2013.

Formally proposed provinces - ]

-Note: This section lists only those proposals that reached the stage where legislation was enacted for the purpose of establishing a province or sub-province, but never achieved corporate existence.

Map of the Philippines showing the proposed provinces
- Occidental Leyte - and - Oriental Leyte - (1923) ;– Leyte was divided into two new provinces by Act No. 3117 on March 27, 1923.[39] The division never took place, however, as no proclamation was issued by the Governor-General.
The province of - Oriental Leyte - would have covered the present-day territories of the entire province of Biliran, the municipalities of Abuyog, Alangalang, Babatngon, Barugo, Burauen, Calubian, Capoocan, Carigara, Dagami, Dulag, Jaro, Javier, Julita, La Paz, Leyte, MacArthur, Mahaplag, Mayorga, Palo, Pastrana, San Isidro, San Miguel, Santa Fe, Tabango, Tabontabon, Tanauan, Tolosa, Tunga and Tacloban City (which was designated as the provincial capital).
The province of - Occidental Leyte - would have covered the present-day territories of the entire province of Southern Leyte, the municipalities of Albuera, Bato, Hilongos, Hindang, Inopacan, Isabel, Kananga, Matag-ob, Matalom, Mérida, Palompon, Villaba and the cities of Baybay and Ormoc. The province capital of Occidental Leyte " - SEC. 2. - ... shall be designated by the Governor-General, until determined by a plurality vote of the electors of the new province at the next general election. "
- Samal - (1969) ;– The sub-province of Samal was created by Republic Act No. 5999[40] and covered the area of the present-day Island Garden City of Samal. However, the sub-province was never inaugurated.
- Maranaw - (1971) ;– Republic Act No. 6406,[41] which sought to create a new province out of eastern Lanao del Sur (now corresponding to the province's first congressional district), was approved on October 4, 1971. The province was to consist of the municipalities of Bubong, Ditsaan-Ramain (including what is now Buadiposo-Buntong), Kapai, Lumba-Bayabao (including what is now Maguing), Marantao, Masiu, Mulondo, Saguiaran, Piagapo, Poona Bayabao, Tamparan, Taraka and Wao (including what is now Bumbaran), with the chartered city of Marawi serving as the new province's capital. Lanao del Sur was to retain the remaining municipalities, with Malabang serving as its new capital. Section 4 of RA 6406 provided that " The new provinces as provided in this Act shall come into existence upon the election and qualification of their first elective provincial officials, who shall be elected in a special election simultaneously with the general elections of November, nineteen hundred and seventy-three ." The division never took place due to the declaration of Martial Law in the Philippines on September 21, 1972, which disrupted the scheduled general elections for 1973 and paved the way for the adoption of a new Constitution and the establishment of the Fourth Philippine Republic. A legacy of this unimplemented division is the existence of two ZIP code series for Lanao del Sur: the 93- series was retained by what were to be the remaining towns of the province (with Malabang, the new capital, being reassigned the code 9300), while a new series (97-) was assigned to what was supposed to be the province of Maranaw (with Marawi City getting the new code 9700).
- Isabela del Norte - and - Isabela del Sur - (1995) ;– On February 20, 1995, Republic Act No. 7891,[42] which sought to divide the province of Isabela, was approved. Isabela del Norte was to comprise municipalities belonging to the province's first and second congressional districts with Ilagan serving as capital. Isabela del Sur was to consist of the third and fourth congressional districts (excluding the independent component city of Santiago), with Cauayan as the capital. The proposed division was rejected in a plebiscite held on June 20, 1995.
- Quezon del Norte - and - Quezon del Sur - (2007) ;– The act dividing the province of Quezon into two, Republic Act No. 9495,[43] lapsed into law without the President's signature on September 7, 2007. Quezon del Norte was to be composed of the first and second congressional districts of the province, with Lucena City as its capital. Quezon del Sur, with its capital at Gumaca, would have been composed of the third and fourth congressional districts. The COMELEC held the plebiscite on December 13, 2008 and majority of the votes cast rejected the division.

Former provinces - ]

Manila - (until 1901) ;– Incorporated into Rizal; portions around Manila later consolidated to form present-day NCR.
Lepanto-Bontoc - (1902–1908) ;– Incorporated into Mountain Province.
Moro Province - (1903–1913) ;– Converted to the Department of Mindanao and Sulu, composed of seven provinces. Now part of several regions in Mindanao.
Ambos Camarines - (1901–1908) ;– Divided into Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, although the wording of Act No. 2809 implies that it is Camarines Norte that was created from Ambos Camarines , re-designated as Camarines Sur. Camarines Sur retained the provincial capital of Nueva Caceres.
Misamis - (1901–1939) ;– Partitioned into Misamis Occidental and Misamis Oriental. Misamis Oriental retained the provincial capital of Cagayan.
Mindoro - (1902–1950) ;– Divided into Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro. Oriental Mindoro retained the provincial capital of Calapan.
Zamboanga - (1914–1952) ;– Partitioned into Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur. The de jure provincial capital of Molave was placed under the jurisdiction of Zamboanga del Sur which had its capital in Pagadian. Zamboanga Sibugay later created from Zamboanga del Sur.
Lanao - (1914–1959) ;– Divided into Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur. Lanao del Sur retained the provincial capital of Dansalan (now Marawi.
Surigao - (1901–1967) ;– Partitioned into Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur. Surigao del Norte retained the provincial capital of Surigao and the provincial seal. The province of Dinagat Islands was later created from Surigao del Norte.
Davao - (1914–1967; 1972–1998) ;– Divided into Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur and Davao Oriental. Davao del Norte was officially known as Davao from 1972 to 1998, when Compostela Valley was later created from Davao province. Davao Occidental later created from Davao del Sur.
Agusan - (1907–1967) ;– Partitioned into Agusan del Norte and Agusan del Sur. Agusan del Norte retained the provincial capital of Butuan.
Negros del Norte - (1985–1986) ;– Batas Pambansa Blg. 885,[44] which created a new province out of the northern part of Negros Occidental, took effect on 23 December 1985, with a plebiscite to ratify the law held on 3 January 1986. The province comprised the present-day cities of Cadiz (which was to serve as the capital), Escalante, Sagay, San Carlos, Silay and Victorias, as well as the municipalities of Calatrava, Enrique B. Magalona, Manapla, Salvador Benedicto and Toboso. Despite voters ratifying Batas Pambansa Blg. 885, on 11 July 1986 the Supreme Court declared the law and the proclamation of the province null and void. The ruling states the enabling law was unconstitutional for, among other things, not including the rest of Negros Occidental in the plebiscite, and the proposed province not meeting the 3,500 square kilometre land area requirement of the 1983 Local Government Code.[45]
Kalinga-Apayao - (1966–1995) ;– Divided into Apayao and Kalinga. Kalinga retained the provincial capital of Tabuk.
Shariff Kabunsuan - (2006–2008) ;– Republic Act No. 9054 conferred to the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao expanded powers, especially the capacity to create provinces (Article VI, Section 19).[46] Based on this, the ARMM Regional Legislative Assembly enacted Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act No. 201 on 28 August 2006. The Act created a new province, comprising all the municipalities in the first congressional district of Maguindanao (except Cotabato City), with its capital at Datu Odin Sinsuat. The province's creation was approved on 28 October 2006 by a majority vote in a plebiscite. Responding to requests for clarification as to which congressional districts form Shariff Kabunsuan for the 2007 elections (specifically whether Cotabato City was part of the representation of the new province), COMELEC issued Resolution No. 7845, which initially held Cotabato City to be the sole remaining LGU in the First District of Maguindanao. COMELEC later amended this with Resolution No. 7902, which maintained the status quo before the province's creation. The COMELEC resolutions became the subject of a case in which the Supreme Court opined that because " the power to create new a province or city inherently involves the power to create a legislative district "—a power that Congress did not explicitly delegate to the ARMM Regional Assembly—the creation of a province by a lower legislative body (the ARMM Regional Assembly) will necessarily entail the creation of a legislative district for a higher legislative body (Congress). Therefore on July 16, 2008, the Supreme Court declared Section 19, Article VI of RA No. 9054 unconstitutional, MMA Act No. 201 void, and COMELEC Resolution No. 7902 valid.[47]
ISO 3166-2:PH
  • ^ - G.R. No. 177597 - Sema v. COMELEC, Supreme Court of the Philippines.
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